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Natural History Hall  HOME > EXHIBITION > Natural History Hall
At the Natural history Hall you can see the natural history of Korean peninsula-land of Korean peninsula and creatures on the land.
You can find evidences of the very early life forms on our land. There are rare specimens such as billion years old fossils and 2.5 billion years old rocks.
You can also experience virtual reality and specimen making at the Discovery Zone and Natural history laboratory.
Natural History Hall

Opening Hours

9:30 am ~ 5:50 pm

Docent Guided Tour

Daily 10:00, 14:30, 15:30, 16:30
1. Campo del Clelo
Campo del Clelo
Evidences of the solar system's birth
The solar system began about 4.6 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dust. Part of the cloud collapsed and compressed by gravity to form a flat spinning disc of dust and gas. Material gathered the disc's center and nuclear fusion began to form our Sun. Remaining material clumped together into bigger pieces to become planets including the Earth, asteroids and comets. Heavy elements sank to the center to form a core of the Earth and lighter elements created the crust.
2. Stromatolite, the oldest evidence of life and oxygen
Stromatolite, the oldest evidence of life and oxygen
Stromatolite is layered biogenic sedimentary structure formed in shallow water by binding sedimentary grains by mats of cyanobacteria. Since 3.5 billion years ago, the cyanobacteria was able to produce oxygen into water through photosynthesis. Before this important event, there was no oxygen in water and land. Cyanobacteria still produces oxygen in present-day shallow sea like Shark Bay in Australia. The oldest stromatolite is found in Socheongdo in Korea and was formed about 1 billion years ago.
3. Ediacara fossil fauna
Ediacara fossil fauna
Ediacara fossil fauna represents multicellular organisms which lived worldwide in ocean and are regarded as the earliest record of animals Most of them were flat because they tried to absorb oxygen more efficiently. They disapperaed as ancestors of modern animals appeared in the Cambrian.
4. Dunkleosteus, an armoured fish
Dunkleosteus, an armoured fish
Dunkleosteus, a famous Devonian placoderm, reaches up to 6 m and its head was covered by hard bony plates.
5. Dinosaurus egg
Dinosaurus egg
Dinosaur is a reptile that adjusted to land environment with amniotic eggs. Dinosaurs are classified into a saurischian with lizard hip bones and ornithischian with bird hip bones. In Korea, Koreaceratops hwaseongensis was found in Hwaseong City and Koreanosaurus bosengensis in Boseong-gun.
6. Cenozoic fossils
Cenozoic fossils
Many Cenozoic fossils ard found in sedimentary rocks of Pohang basin. Various invertebrates such as bivalves, gastropods, sea urchins, brittle stars, and mantic shrimp, vertebrates such as bony fishes, sharks and dolphins, and foraminiferans inhabited shallow water.
7. Mammoth
Ancestors of modern elehpants appeared in Early Cenozoic and evolved into various forms. Mammoth that appeared about 5 million years ago, lived through the glacial period, and went extinct about 5,000 years ago. Mammoth lived in North America and Eurasia reaches height of about 4 m high and weight of 8 tonnes and some are covered with furs. Human hunted them down, which caused the extinction.
8. Growth of Eonyang Amethyst
Growth of Eonyang Amethyst
Eonyang amethyst looks like a matsutake mushroom where different colored quartz crystals from white quartz, smoky quartz to amethyst are placed in succession. The analysis of inclusions in the crystals show that the white quartz was formed at 400~500℃, smoky quartz at 200~400℃, and amethyst at 150~200℃. In cavities formed when the magma cooled down, white and smoky quartz crystals were formed under the influence of hydrothermal fiuids, As the cavities became close the surface, the amethyst crystals were formed under the influence of groundwater including SiO₂.
9. Dino Hall
Dino Hall
"Dino hall" exhibits skeletons of dinosaurs that roamed around the Earth during the Mesozoic. Dinosaurs are one of the great successes in the history of life on Earth. Once they were thought to go extinct, they are still around us as birds, the descendants of dinosaurs.
10. Fish
The fish consists of a head, body, tail and fins. Most of the fishes are covered with scales. They breathe with gills in the water and move about by flipping their fins. Fishes are largely classified into following classes such as Agnathas with no jaw, Chondrichthyes with jaws, soft bones and no air bladder, and Teleosteis with jawbone, hard bones and the air bladder. There are about 1,200 species of fish in Korea, including 200 species living in fresh water and about 60 endemic species.
11. Amphibians
Amphibians have four legs and breed in the water by laying eggs, In their early stages of life while living in the water, amphibians breath with gills and then with lungs on land when they becomes adults following metamorphosis. Amphibians usually live in a humid environment so that their skin does not dry out since skin breathing takes a large portion of their breathing. Amphibians are classified into the Anuran (frogs and toads) whose Tail disappears in adulthood and Urodela (salamander) whose tail remains in adulthood. There are about 20 species of amphibians in Korea, including 6 endemic species.
12. Reptiles
Reptiles breathe with lungs and breed mostly by laying eggs. The egg consists of a shell through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass and a membrane that prevents the inside from drying out. The skin is covered with keratin scales, which keep the bodily fluid from escaping while on land. Reptiles are classified into crocodiles whose whole body is covered with corrugated scales, turtles equipped with carapace and plastron, lizards with legs but no carapace and plastron, and snakes with neigher legs nor carapace and plastron. There are 30 species of reptiles in Korea with no endemic species.
13. Birds
Birds have a toothless beak and two wings, which are transformed from forelimbs. Birds breathe with lungs with their outer body covered with feathers. Birds can fly in the sky using their beautiful feather, also feather is playing significant role for keep warm, water proof and hold body balance during the flight. Feathers are also used to display courtship during mating. All birds breed by laying eggs in their nests, there many differant kind of bird nests on the tree, rock, just underground as well. Birds classified based on their ecological lifestyle into several groups, e.g. song birds which are make a sound during the breeding season, water birds which are can swim in water using their webbed feet, shore birds which are can walk in the low level water to obtain food, and birds of prey which have strong equipped sharp beak and claws. There are other classification for birds, e.g. classified based on their morphological characteristic and habitat. In korea, about 500 different species birds distributed without any endemic species.
14. Mammaloan Teeth
Mammaloan Teeth
Mammalian teeth are divided into the front teeth, canine teeth, and molar teeth. Carnivorous mammals have well-developed sharp canines suitable to bite and tear their prey while omnivorous ones have all their teeth developed to be able to eat and chew a variety of foods. The herbivorous mammals have well-developed front teeth and molar teeth to enable them to gnaw and grind leaves although some herbivores have their canines well developed for self-protection purposes. In addition, carnivores have the roots of their teeth more deeply embedded in the jawbone than herbivores to properly bite and tear their prey.
15. Birds that disappeared from the Korean peninsula
Birds that disappeared from the Korean peninsula
Ciconia boyciana
The Ciconia boyciana is a bird species belonging to the Order Ciconiformes and Family Ciconiidae. It is a white bird with black wing feathers. Ciconia boyciana live in lakes, estuaries, agricultural lands, rivers, and wetlands. They used to be a familiar resident bird close to people that made a nest on an old tree on the entrance of a village or in town. With the disappearance of wetlands and extensive use of pesticides, the population of Ciconia boyciana has gradually reduced to near extinctino. In 1971, a last-seen resident Ciconia boyciana couple was found, but the male was sacrificed by poaching, and the widowed female in 1994. Ciconia boyciana are currently designated as National Monument No.199 and are rarely found among winter migratory birds.

Efforts to restore Ciconia boyciana
In an effort to restore the population of the Ciconia boyciana, the Ciconia boyciana Restoration Center of Korea National University of Education brought baby Ciconia boyciana with the DNA same as that of our domestic Ciconia boyciana from the Amur region of Russia in 1996 and proliferated. The number of proliferated Ciconia boyciana today is about 140, eight of which were released into the wild in 2015 with the remaining population scheduled to be released on a step-by-step basis as well.
16. Fishes disappeared from the Korean peninsula
Fishes disappeared from the Korean peninsula
Acipenser sinensis
The Acipenser sinensis is a freshwater fish belonging to the order Acipenseriformes, and family Acipenseridae. The Acipenser sinensis is also a migratory fish species and occasionally appears in the Han River, Geum River, Youngsan River, etc. Most recently, one wild Acipenser sinensis was caught at the Geum River estuary in December, 1995. The population of Acipenser sinensis has reduced due to collection of their eggs (caviars), water pollution, and the limited development of their habitat. International trades of Acipenser sinensis have been banned since 1998.

Efforts to restore Acipenser sinensis
A series of researches have been conducted in Korea in a bid to restore the Acipenser sinensis population. In 2009, more than 1,300 Acipenser sinensis were brought from North Korea and have been cultivated in freshwater and seawater ever since along with restoration researches.

Leiocassis longirostris
Leiocassis longirostris is a freshwater fish species belonging to the order Siluriformes, and family Bagridae. The fish were widely dispersed throughout the Han River, Daedong River, Cheongcheon River, Imjin River and the Geum River Until around 1930 but none has been observed since the 1970s. The fish are presumed to go extinct in Korea due to water pollution, destruction of habitat with the construction of estuaries and overfishing.

Efforts to restore Leiocassis longirostris
In an effort to restore the Leiocassis longirostris, the Inland Fisheries Research Institute imported Leiocassis longirostris from China, which are the same as domestic ones in 2000 and succeeded in producing fries. About 2,000 fries were released to the Geum River in 2016 to facilitate the restoration of its population.
17. Skeleton of bird and mammal
Skeleton of bird and mammal
Birds bave ability to modify their bones to be able to fly effectively. Mammalian bones are filled with bone marrow while avian bones are hollow and airy, which makes avian hones lighter than the mammalian counterparts.
18. Defensive features of herbivorous dinosaurs-Tail club and tail spikes
Defensive features of herbivorous dinosaurs
Plant-eating dinosaurs protected themselves from predators in various ways. To protect themselves from and counter-attack predators, Ankylosaurus had hard bony plates on its back and sides and large bony tail club, and Stegosaurus had two rows of bony plates and spikes at the end of tail.
19. Defensive features of herbivorous dinosaurs-Thick skull
Defensive features of herbivorous dinosaurs
plant-eating dinosaurs protected themselves from predators in various ways. Pachycephalosaurus has a very thick skull for head-butting and bony knobs around the skull to attack the predators.